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J Hazard Mater. 2018 Jun 5;351:124-130. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.02.050. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

Dilute-and-shoot enhances sensitivity of phthalate urinary concentrations for assessing the exposure in children.

Author information

1
Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan.
2
Graduate Institute of Toxicology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Forensic and Clinical Toxicology Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
3
Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan; Forensic and Clinical Toxicology Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
4
Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan.
5
Graduate Institute of Toxicology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
6
Forensic and Clinical Toxicology Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department and Graduate Institute of Forensic Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
7
Department and Graduate Institute of Forensic Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Emergency Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
8
Forensic and Clinical Toxicology Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department and Graduate Institute of Forensic Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address: paishanchen@ntu.edu.tw.

Abstract

Phthalates are not covalently bound to plastics. They can leach from experimental plastic devices. Due to the development of sensitive techniques, exogenous sources that interfere with the accuracy of phthalate monoester analysis can be easily detected. Here, we propose the simple and rapid dilute-and-shoot method to minimize sample handling and limit contact with laboratory apparatus, which efficiently reduced phthalate interferences mainly from experimental plasticware and improved the accuracy of analysis. Chemical additives in the mobile phase and modifiers in reconstituted solution were evaluated to improve peak shape and liquid chromatography separation. Under optimal conditions, the limit of detection ranged from 0.01 to 0.5 ng/mL. No phthalate monoesters were detected above the limit of detection in blank water while the leached concentrations of MMP, MEP, MiBP, MnBP and MEHP from the conventional solid phase extraction procedure were 1.9, 2.7, 0.9, 2.0 and 1.1 ng/mL, respectively. In 304 samples collected from primary school- children aged 9-10 years, we observed a positive association between body mass index (BMI) and urinary MMP and MiBP concentrations in boys, while MEOHP and MEHHP were inversely related to BMI in girls. Furthermore, detectable phthalate monoesters may be considered potential chemical obesogens related to BMI in children.

KEYWORDS:

Body mass index; Dilute-and-shoot; Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; Phthalate; Urine

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