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Implement Sci. 2018 Mar 9;13(1):40. doi: 10.1186/s13012-018-0731-z.

Organizational- and system-level characteristics that influence implementation of shared decision-making and strategies to address them - a scoping review.

Author information

1
The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Dartmouth College, Level 5, Williamson Translational Research Building, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH, 03756, USA. isabelle.scholl@dartmouth.edu.
2
Department of Medical Psychology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, W26, 20246, Hamburg, Germany. isabelle.scholl@dartmouth.edu.
3
The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Dartmouth College, Level 5, Williamson Translational Research Building, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH, 03756, USA.
4
Department of Medical Psychology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, W26, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.
5
Healthcare Delivery Research Program, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20852, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Shared decision-making (SDM) is poorly implemented in routine care, despite being promoted by health policies. No reviews have solely focused on an in-depth synthesis of the literature around organizational- and system-level characteristics (i.e., characteristics of healthcare organizations and of healthcare systems) that may affect SDM implementation. A synthesis would allow exploration of interventions to address these characteristics. The study aim was to compile a comprehensive overview of organizational- and system-level characteristics that are likely to influence the implementation of SDM, and to describe strategies to address those characteristics described in the literature.

METHODS:

We conducted a scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework. The search strategy included an electronic search and a secondary search including gray literature. We included publications reporting on projects that promoted implementation of SDM or other decision support interventions in routine healthcare. We screened titles and abstracts, and assessed full texts for eligibility. We used qualitative thematic analysis to identify organizational- and system-level characteristics.

RESULTS:

After screening 7745 records and assessing 354 full texts for eligibility, 48 publications on 32 distinct implementation projects were included. Most projects (N = 22) were conducted in the USA. Several organizational-level characteristics were described as influencing the implementation of SDM, including organizational leadership, culture, resources, and priorities, as well as teams and workflows. Described system-level characteristics included policies, clinical guidelines, incentives, culture, education, and licensing. We identified potential strategies to influence the described characteristics, e.g., examples how to facilitate distribution of decision aids in a healthcare institution.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although infrequently studied, organizational- and system-level characteristics appear to play a role in the failure to implement SDM in routine care. A wide range of characteristics described as supporting and inhibiting implementation were identified. Future studies should assess the impact of these characteristics on SDM implementation more thoroughly, quantify likely interactions, and assess how characteristics might operate across types of systems and areas of healthcare. Organizations that wish to support the adoption of SDM should carefully consider the role of organizational- and system-level characteristics. Implementation and organizational theory could provide useful guidance for how to address facilitators and barriers to change.

KEYWORDS:

Decision aids; Health policy; Health system -level characteristics; Implementation; Implementation science; Incentives; Leadership; Organizational -level characteristics; Routine care; Shared decision-making

PMID:
29523167
PMCID:
PMC5845212
DOI:
10.1186/s13012-018-0731-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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