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Cell. 2018 Mar 8;172(6):1239-1259. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.11.032.

The Biology of CRISPR-Cas: Backward and Forward.

Author information

1
Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, 10117 Berlin, Germany; Institute for Biology, Humboldt University, 10115 Berlin, Germany.
2
Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, 10117 Berlin, Germany.
3
Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, 10117 Berlin, Germany; The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR), Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden; Institute for Biology, Humboldt University, 10115 Berlin, Germany.
4
Department of Regulation in Infection Biology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, 10117 Berlin, Germany; The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR), Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden; Institute for Biology, Humboldt University, 10115 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: research-charpentier@mpiib-berlin.mpg.de.

Abstract

In bacteria and archaea, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins constitute an adaptive immune system against phages and other foreign genetic elements. Here, we review the biology of the diverse CRISPR-Cas systems and the major progress achieved in recent years in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the three stages of CRISPR-Cas immunity: adaptation, crRNA biogenesis, and interference. The ecology and regulation of CRISPR-Cas in the context of phage infection, the roles of these systems beyond immunity, and the open questions that propel the field forward are also discussed.

PMID:
29522745
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2017.11.032

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