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Investig Clin Urol. 2018 Mar;59(2):106-111. doi: 10.4111/icu.2018.59.2.106. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Dietary risk factors for urolithiasis in Korea: A case-control pilot study.

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Department of Urology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Urology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.



Dietary factors are one of the main causes of urolithiasis. However, little research has evaluated dietary factors related to urolithiasis in Korea. We investigated the various dietary risk factors for urinary stone formation in Korean people.

Materials and Methods:

We conducted a prospective case-control pilot study. A total of 27 patients newly diagnosed with urolithiasis and 20 applicants without urolithiasis were designated as the patients and the control group, respectively. A face-to-face survey was carried out using a food-frequency questionnaire. After adjustment for physical activity level and total energy intake, multivariate logistic regression models were applied to search for risk factors for urolithiasis.


There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, body mass index, family history, or total energy intake. The physical activity level of the control group was significantly higher than that of the patients (p=0.012). The results of the multivariate logistic regression model demonstrated that intake of carbohydrate (odds ratio [OR], 1.055; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.012-1.099), protein (OR, 1.101; 95% CI, 1.001-1.211), and cereals (OR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.002-1.023) could increase the risk for urolithiasis.


A higher intake of carbohydrate, protein, and cereal may increase the risk of urinary stone formation among Korean people.


Case-control studies; Diet; Risk factors; Urolithiasis

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