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Development. 2018 Mar 8;145(5). pii: dev156166. doi: 10.1242/dev.156166.

Modeling human diseases with induced pluripotent stem cells: from 2D to 3D and beyond.

Liu C1,2,3, Oikonomopoulos A1,2,3, Sayed N1,2,3, Wu JC4,2,3.

Author information

1
Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford, CA 94035, USA.
2
Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
3
Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
4
Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford, CA 94035, USA joewu@stanford.edu.

Abstract

The advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) presents unprecedented opportunities to model human diseases. Differentiated cells derived from iPSCs in two-dimensional (2D) monolayers have proven to be a relatively simple tool for exploring disease pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms. In this Spotlight article, we discuss the progress and limitations of the current 2D iPSC disease-modeling platform, as well as recent advancements in the development of human iPSC models that mimic in vivo tissues and organs at the three-dimensional (3D) level. Recent bioengineering approaches have begun to combine different 3D organoid types into a single '4D multi-organ system'. We summarize the advantages of this approach and speculate on the future role of 4D multi-organ systems in human disease modeling.

KEYWORDS:

Disease modeling; Induced pluripotent stem cells; Organ-on-chip; Organoid

PMID:
29519889
PMCID:
PMC5868991
DOI:
10.1242/dev.156166
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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