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Toxins (Basel). 2018 Mar 7;10(3). pii: E113. doi: 10.3390/toxins10030113.

Individual and Combined Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feed Ingredients and Complete Feeds in China.

Ma R1,2, Zhang L3,4, Liu M5,6, Su YT7, Xie WM8, Zhang NY9,10, Dai JF11, Wang Y12, Rajput SA13,14, Qi DS15,16, Karrow NA17, Sun LH18,19.

Author information

1
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. marui6@webmail.hzau.edu.cn.
2
The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070, China. marui6@webmail.hzau.edu.cn.
3
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. zhanglei6@webmail.hzau.edu.cn.
4
The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070, China. zhanglei6@webmail.hzau.edu.cn.
5
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. liumeng0821@webmail.hzau.edu.cn.
6
The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070, China. liumeng0821@webmail.hzau.edu.cn.
7
Jiangsu Aomai Bio-Technology Co., Ltd., Nanjing 211226, China. ytsu@aomai-bio.com.
8
Jiangsu Aomai Bio-Technology Co., Ltd., Nanjing 211226, China. wmxie@aomai-bio.com.
9
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. zhangniya@mail.hzau.edu.cn.
10
The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070, China. zhangniya@mail.hzau.edu.cn.
11
Sichuan Green Food Development Center, Chengdu 610041, China. daijiefan@126.com.
12
Hubei Gosign Bio-Feed Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430040, China. mr.wangyun@163.com.
13
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. dr.shahidali@hotmail.com.
14
The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070, China. dr.shahidali@hotmail.com.
15
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. qds@mail.hzau.edu.cn.
16
The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070, China. qds@mail.hzau.edu.cn.
17
Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G2W1, Canada. nkarrow@uoguelph.ca.
18
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. lvhuisun@mail.hzau.edu.cn.
19
The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070, China. lvhuisun@mail.hzau.edu.cn.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the individual and combined contamination of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in feedstuffs from different Provinces of China between 2016 and 2017. A total of 1569 samples, including 742 feed ingredients and 827 complete pig feed samples, were collected from various regions of China for mycotoxins analysis. The results showed that individual occurrence rates of AFB₁, ZEN, and DON were more than 83.3%, 88%, and 74.5%, respectively, in all the tested samples. DON was the most prevalent contaminant, followed by ZEN and AFB₁, with the average concentrations ranging from 450.0-4381.5 μg/kg, 2.3-729.2 μg/kg, and 1.3-10.0 μg/kg, respectively. Notable, 38.2%, 10.8%, and 0.6% of complete pig feeds were contaminated with DON, ZEN, and AFB₁ over China's regulatory limits, respectively. Moreover, over 75.0% analyzed samples were co-contaminated with two or three mycotoxins. In conclusion, the current study revealed that the feedstuffs in China were severely contaminated with DON, followed by ZEN and AFB₁ during the past two years. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring mycotoxins in livestock feed and implementing feed management and bioremediation strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure.

KEYWORDS:

China; aflatoxin B1; deoxynivalenol; feedstuffs; zearalenone

PMID:
29518909
PMCID:
PMC5869401
DOI:
10.3390/toxins10030113
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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