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MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Mar 9;67(9):265-269. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6709a1.

Update: Noncongenital Zika Virus Disease Cases - 50 U.S. States and the District of Columbia, 2016.


Zika virus is a flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections also have been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-3). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic or result in mild clinical illness, characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis; Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, and severe thrombocytopenia rarely have been associated with Zika virus infection (1). However, congenital Zika virus infection can result in fetal loss, microcephaly, and other birth defects (1,2). In 2016, a total of 5,168 noncongenital Zika virus disease cases were reported from U.S. states and the District of Columbia. Most cases (4,897, 95%) were in travelers returning from Zika virus-affected areas. A total of 224 (4%) cases were acquired through presumed local mosquitoborne transmission, and 47 (1%) were acquired by other routes. It is important that providers in the United States continue to test symptomatic patients who live in or recently traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission or had unprotected sex with someone who lives in or traveled to those areas. All pregnant women and their partners should take measures to prevent Zika virus infection during pregnancy. A list of affected areas and specific recommendations on how to prevent Zika virus infection during pregnancy are available at

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