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J Appl Physiol (1985). 2018 Jun 1;124(6):1550-1557. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00962.2017. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Identification and quantification of human microcirculatory leukocytes using handheld video microscopes at the bedside.

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Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam , Amsterdam , The Netherlands.
Department of Experimental Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam , Amsterdam , The Netherlands.
Department of Intensive Care, Erasmus MC University Hospital Rotterdam , Rotterdam , The Netherlands.
Department of Biology, The University of Istanbul , Istanbul , Turkey.
Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam , Amsterdam , The Netherlands.


Leukocyte recruitment and adhesion to the endothelium are hallmarks of systemic inflammation that manifest in a wide range of diseases. At present, no method is available to directly measure leukocyte kinetics at the bedside. In this study, we validate a new method to identify and quantify microcirculatory leukocytes observed by handheld vital microscopy (HVM) using space-time diagram (STD) analysis. Video clips ( n = 59) containing one capillary-postcapillary venule unit where leukocytes could be observed emanating from a capillary into a venule in cardiac surgery patients ( n = 20) were included. STD analysis and manual counting were used to quantify the number of leukocytes (total, rolling, and nonrolling). Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were used to determine agreement between the STDs and manual counting. For reproducibility, intra- and interobserver coefficients of variation (CVs) were assessed. Leukocyte (rolling and nonrolling) and red blood cell velocities were assessed. The STDs and manual counting procedures for the quantification of rolling leukocytes showed good agreement ( r = 0.8197, P < 0.0001), with a Bland-Altman analysis mean difference of -0.0 (-6.56; 6.56). The overall intraobserver CV for the STD method was 1.5%. The overall interobserver CVs for the STD and the manual method were 5.6% and 9.4%, respectively. The nonrolling velocity was significantly higher than the rolling velocity (812 ± 519 µm/s vs. 201 ± 149 µm/s, P = 0.001). STD results agreed with the manual counting procedure results, had a better reproducibility, and could assess the leukocyte velocity. STD analysis using bedside HVM imaging presented a new methodology for quantifying leukocyte kinetics and functions in the microcirculation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, we introduce space-time diagram analysis of sublingual microcirculation imaging using handheld vital microscopy to identify and quantify the presence and kinetics of human microcirculatory leukocytes. We validated the methodology by choosing anatomical units consisting of a capillary connected to a venule, which allowed precise identification of leukocytes.


human microcirculation; incident dark-field (IDF) imaging; leukocytes; space-time diagrams; sublingual

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