Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Mycobacteriol. 2018 Jan-Mar;7(1):1-6. doi: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_164_17.

Patients at high risk of tuberculosis recurrence.

Author information

1
Department of Veterans Affair, Miami VA Medical Center; Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
2
Department of Veterans Affairs, Atlanta VAMC, Decatur; Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Emory, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Abstract

Recurrent tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a significant problem and is an important indicator of the effectiveness of TB control. Recurrence can occur by relapse or exogenous reinfection. Recurrence of TB is still a major problem in high-burden countries, where there is lack of resources and no special attention is being given to this issue. The rate of recurrence is highly variable and has been estimated to range from 4.9% to 47%. This variability is related to differences in regional epidemiology of recurrence and differences in the definitions used by the TB control programs. In addition to treatment failure from noncompliance, there are several key host factors that are associated with high rates of recurrence. The widely recognized host factors independent of treatment program that predispose to TB recurrence include gender differences, malnutrition; comorbidities such as diabetes, renal failure, and systemic diseases, especially immunosuppressive states such as human immunodeficiency virus; substance abuse; and environmental exposures such as silicosis. With improved understanding of the human genome, proteome, and metabolome, additional host-specific factors that predispose to recurrence are being identified. Information on temporal and geographical trends of TB cases as well as studies with whole-genome sequencing might provide further information to enable us to fully understand TB recurrence and discriminate between reactivation and new infection. The recently launched World Health Organization End TB Strategy emphasizes the importance of integrated, patient-centered TB care. Continued improvement in diagnosis, treatment approaches, and an understanding of host-specific factors are needed to fully understand the clinical epidemiological and social determinants of TB recurrence.

KEYWORDS:

Recurrence; risk factors; tuberculosis

PMID:
29516879
DOI:
10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_164_17
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Medknow Publications and Media Pvt Ltd
Loading ...
Support Center