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Sci Rep. 2018 Mar 7;8(1):4136. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22580-7.

Brettanomyces bruxellensis population survey reveals a diploid-triploid complex structured according to substrate of isolation and geographical distribution.

Author information

1
Univ. Bordeaux, ISVV, Unité de recherche Œnologie EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA, Bordeaux, INP, 33140 Villenave d'Ornon, France. avramova.marta@gmail.com.
2
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia. avramova.marta@gmail.com.
3
Univ. Bordeaux, ISVV, Unité de recherche Œnologie EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA, Bordeaux, INP, 33140 Villenave d'Ornon, France.
4
Université de Brest, EA 3882, Laboratoire Universitaire de Biodiversité et Ecologie Microbienne, ESIAB, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280, Plouzané, France.
5
Université de Strasbourg, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Génétique Moléculaire, Génomique, Microbiologie, Unité Mixte de Recherche, 7156, Strasbourg, France.
6
Department of the Science of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.
7
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Division of Vine and Wine Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Viale Italia, 83100, Avellino, Italy.
8
INRA, UMR Biodiversité Gènes et Ecosystèmes, PlateForme Génomique, 33610, Cestas, France.
9
Bordeaux INP ISVV EA 4577, F-33140, Villenave d'Ornon, France.
10
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia.
11
Department of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State University, 100 Wiegand Hall, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331-6602, USA.
12
ENSCBP, Bordeaux INP, 33600, Pessac, France.
13
Bordeaux Sciences Agro, 33170, Gradignan, France.

Abstract

Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a unicellular fungus of increasing industrial and scientific interest over the past 15 years. Previous studies revealed high genotypic diversity amongst B. bruxellensis strains as well as strain-dependent phenotypic characteristics. Genomic assemblies revealed that some strains harbour triploid genomes and based upon prior genotyping it was inferred that a triploid population was widely dispersed across Australian wine regions. We performed an intraspecific diversity genotypic survey of 1488 B. bruxellensis isolates from 29 countries, 5 continents and 9 different fermentation niches. Using microsatellite analysis in combination with different statistical approaches, we demonstrate that the studied population is structured according to ploidy level, substrate of isolation and geographical origin of the strains, underlying the relative importance of each factor. We found that geographical origin has a different contribution to the population structure according to the substrate of origin, suggesting an anthropic influence on the spatial biodiversity of this microorganism of industrial interest. The observed clustering was correlated to variable stress response, as strains from different groups displayed variation in tolerance to the wine preservative sulfur dioxide (SO2). The potential contribution of the triploid state for adaptation to industrial fermentations and dissemination of the species B. bruxellensis is discussed.

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