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Cad Saude Publica. 2018 Mar 5;34(3):e00019717. doi: 10.1590/0102-311X00019717.

Consumption of ultra-processed foods and socioeconomic position: a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

Author information

1
Programa de Pós-graduação em Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brasil.
2
Programa de Pós-graduação em Saúde e Nutrição, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brasil.
3
Programa de Pós-graduação em Epidemiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil.
4
Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil.
5
Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

Abstract

The objective of the study was to estimate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to total caloric intake and investigate whether it differs according to socioeconomic position. We analyzed baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil 2008-2010; N = 14.378) and data on dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire, assigning it into three categories: unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients, processed foods, and ultra-processed foods. We measured the associations between socioeconomic position (education, per capita household income, and occupational social class) and the percentage of caloric contribution of ultra-processed foods, using generalized linear regression models adjusted for age and sex. Unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients contributed to 65.7% of the total caloric intake, followed by ultra-processed foods (22.7%). After adjustments, the percentage of caloric contribution of ultra-processed foods was 20% lower among participants with incomplete elementary school when compared to postgraduates. Compared to individuals from upper income classes, the caloric contribution of ultra-processed foods was 10%, 15% and 20% lower among the ones from the three lowest income, respectively. The caloric contribution of ultra-processed foods was also 7%, 12%, 12%, and 17% lower among participants in the lowest occupational social class compared to those from high social classes. Results suggest that the caloric contribution of ultra-processed foods is higher among individuals from high socioeconomic positions with a dose-response relationship for the associations.

PMID:
29513858
DOI:
10.1590/0102-311X00019717
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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