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Nature. 2018 Mar 15;555(7696):363-366. doi: 10.1038/nature25785. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Pursuing sustainable productivity with millions of smallholder farmers.

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College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.
College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071001, China.
College of Resources and Environment, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China.
Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.
Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling 712100, China.
College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450000, China.
College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.
Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.
Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu 610066, China.
Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei 230031, China.
College of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.
Institute of Agricultural Resource and Environment, Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun 130033, China.
State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling 712100, China.
College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China.
Institute of Agricultural Environment and Resources, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan 030031, China.
College of Resources and Environmental Science, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China.
Department of Resources and Environment, Agriculture College, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang, 832003, China.
Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051, China.
College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271000, China.
College of Agronomy, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China.
Rice Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Science, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China.
Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China.
College of Plant Science, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.
Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resource Environment, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, China.
Center for Animal Health and Productivity, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania 19348, USA.


Sustainably feeding a growing population is a grand challenge, and one that is particularly difficult in regions that are dominated by smallholder farming. Despite local successes, mobilizing vast smallholder communities with science- and evidence-based management practices to simultaneously address production and pollution problems has been infeasible. Here we report the outcome of concerted efforts in engaging millions of Chinese smallholder farmers to adopt enhanced management practices for greater yield and environmental performance. First, we conducted field trials across China's major agroecological zones to develop locally applicable recommendations using a comprehensive decision-support program. Engaging farmers to adopt those recommendations involved the collaboration of a core network of 1,152 researchers with numerous extension agents and agribusiness personnel. From 2005 to 2015, about 20.9 million farmers in 452 counties adopted enhanced management practices in fields with a total of 37.7 million cumulative hectares over the years. Average yields (maize, rice and wheat) increased by 10.8-11.5%, generating a net grain output of 33 million tonnes (Mt). At the same time, application of nitrogen decreased by 14.7-18.1%, saving 1.2 Mt of nitrogen fertilizers. The increased grain output and decreased nitrogen fertilizer use were equivalent to US$12.2 billion. Estimated reactive nitrogen losses averaged 4.5-4.7 kg nitrogen per Megagram (Mg) with the intervention compared to 6.0-6.4 kg nitrogen per Mg without. Greenhouse gas emissions were 328 kg, 812 kg and 434 kg CO2 equivalent per Mg of maize, rice and wheat produced, respectively, compared to 422 kg, 941 kg and 549 kg CO2 equivalent per Mg without the intervention. On the basis of a large-scale survey (8.6 million farmer participants) and scenario analyses, we further demonstrate the potential impacts of implementing the enhanced management practices on China's food security and sustainability outlook.

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