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Korean J Med Educ. 2018 Mar;30(1):1-10. doi: 10.3946/kjme.2018.76. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

A primer on entrustable professional activities.

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Center for Research and Development of Education, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.


Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) have become a popular topic within competency-based medical education programs in many countries and hundreds of publications within only a few years. This paper was written to introduce the ins and outs of EPAs. After a brief historical overview, the rational of EPAs, as a bridge between a competency framework and daily clinical practice, is explained. Next, entrustment decision-making as a form of assessment is elaborated and framework of levels of supervision is presented. For readers interested to apply the concept in practice a stepwise approach to curriculum development is proposed. The paper concludes with an overview of the state of the art of working with EPAs in across disciplines, professions and countries.


Competency; Curriculum; Entrustable professional activities; Medical education; Clinical practice

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