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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 Mar 6. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13610. [Epub ahead of print]

Evolving building blocks of rhythm: how human cognition creates music via cultural transmission.

Author information

1
Artificial Intelligence Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
2
Language and Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
3
Research Department, Sealcentre Pieterburen, Pieterburen, the Netherlands.
4
Centre for Language Evolution, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
5
Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Abstract

Why does musical rhythm have the structure it does? Musical rhythm, in all its cross-cultural diversity, exhibits commonalities across world cultures. Traditionally, music research has been split into two fields. Some scientists focused on musicality, namely the human biocognitive predispositions for music, with an emphasis on cross-cultural similarities. Other scholars investigated music, seen as a cultural product, focusing on the variation in world musical cultures. Recent experiments found deep connections between music and musicality, reconciling these opposing views. Here, we address the question of how individual cognitive biases affect the process of cultural evolution of music. Data from two experiments are analyzed using two complementary techniques. In the experiments, participants hear drumming patterns and imitate them. These patterns are then given to the same or another participant to imitate. The structure of these initially random patterns is tracked along experimental "generations." Frequentist statistics show how participants' biases are amplified by cultural transmission, making drumming patterns more structured. Structure is achieved faster in transmission within rather than between participants. A Bayesian model approximates the motif structures participants learned and created. Our data and models suggest that individual biases for musicality may shape the cultural transmission of musical rhythm.

KEYWORDS:

Bayesian model; biomusicology; cultural transmission; evolution of music; rhythm; timing

PMID:
29508405
DOI:
10.1111/nyas.13610

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