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PLoS One. 2018 Mar 5;13(3):e0193388. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193388. eCollection 2018.

Clinical and genetic characteristics of 15 families with hereditary hypophosphatemia: Novel Mutations in PHEX and SLC34A3.

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Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.
Department of Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Katip Çelebi University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.
Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Adnan Menderes University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.
Department of Endocrinology, Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.
Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.



Hereditary hypophosphatemia is a group of rare renal phosphate wasting disorders. The diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological, and biochemical features, and may require genetic testing to be confirmed.


Clinical features and mutation spectrum were investigated in patients with hereditary hypophosphatemia. Genomic DNA of 23 patients from 15 unrelated families were screened sequentially by PCR-sequencing analysis for mutations in the following genes: PHEX, FGF23, DMP1, ENPP1, CLCN5, SLC34A3 and SLC34A1. CytoScan HD Array was used to identify large deletions.


Genetic evaluation resulted in the identification of an additional asymptomatic but intermittent hypophosphatemic subject. Mutations were detected in 21 patients and an asymptomatic sibling from 13 families (86.6%, 13/15). PHEX mutations were identified in 20 patients from 12 families. Six of them were novel mutations present in 9 patients: c.983_987dupCTACC, c.1586+2T>G, c.1206delA, c.436+1G>T, c.1217G>T, and g.22,215,887-22,395,767del (179880 bp deletion including exon 16-22 and ZNF645). Six previously reported mutations were found in 11 patients. Among 12 different PHEX mutations, 6 were de novo mutations. Patients with de novo PHEX mutations often had delayed diagnosis and significantly shorter in height than those who had inherited PHEX mutations. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in SLC34A3 were found in one patient and his asymptomatic sister: c.1335+2T>A and c.1639_1652del14. No mutation was detected in two families.


This is the largest familial study on Turkish patients with hereditary hypophosphatemia. PHEX mutations, including various novel and de novo variants, are the most common genetic defect. More attention should be paid to hypophosphatemia by clinicians since some cases remain undiagnosed both during childhood and adulthood.

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