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J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr. 2018 Jan-Mar;37(1):1-13. doi: 10.1080/21551197.2017.1419899. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Risk of Incident Cognitive Impairment in Black and White Older Adults: The Health ABC Study.

Author information

1
a Department of Internal Medicine , Baylor Scott & White Health , Temple , Texas , USA.
2
b Wake Forest School of Medicine, Sticht Center on Aging, Section of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine , Winston-Salem , North Carolina , USA.
3
c James H. Quillen VA Medical Center, Mountain Home VA Medical Center, East Tennessee State University , Mountain Home , Tennessee , USA.
4
d Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Section of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine , Winston-Salem , North Carolina , USA.
5
e University of California at San Francisco , San Francisco , California , USA.
6
f University of Pittsburgh Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health , Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania , USA.
7
g National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program , Washington DC , USA.
8
h MAS for the Health ABC Study, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Sticht Center on Aging , Winston-Salem , North Carolina , USA.

Abstract

Using data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, we examined whether low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations were associated with prevalent or incident cognitive impairment. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in 2,786 older adults and categorized as <20 ng/mL, 20 to <30 ng/mL, or ≥30 ng/mL. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score >1.5 standard deviations below race and education specific means on either digit symbol substitution test or modified mini-mental state test. Logistic regression determined the odds of cognitive impairment at baseline and year 5 by 25(OH)D category. 25(OH)D concentrations were <30 ng/mL in 57.3% of whites and 84.6% of blacks. After excluding participants with baseline cognitive impairment (n = 340), 13% of whites and 13% of blacks developed cognitive impairment by year 5. In whites, 25(OH)D concentrations <30 ng/mL were not associated with prevalent or incident cognitive impairment. Black participants with 25(OH)D concentrations <20 ng/mL had a higher odds of prevalent, but not incident cognitive impairment (OR (95% CI): 2.05 (1.08-3.91), p = 0.03) compared to participants with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥30 ng/mL. Low 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with twofold higher odds of prevalent cognitive impairment in blacks.

KEYWORDS:

Cognitive impairment; vitamin D

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