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Adv Mater. 2018 Apr;30(15):e1705976. doi: 10.1002/adma.201705976. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Chemical and Morphological Control of Interfacial Self-Doping for Efficient Organic Electronics.

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Polymer Science and Engineering Department, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 120 Governors Drive, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA.
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China.
Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.
Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA.


Solution-based processing of materials for electrical doping of organic semiconductor interfaces is attractive for boosting the efficiency of organic electronic devices with multilayer structures. To simplify this process, self-doping perylene diimide (PDI)-based ionene polymers are synthesized, in which the semiconductor PDI components are embedded together with electrolyte dopants in the polymer backbone. Functionality contained within the PDI monomers suppresses their aggregation, affording self-doping interlayers with controllable thickness when processed from solution into organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). Optimal results for interfacial self-doping lead to increased power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the fullerene-based OPVs, from 2.62% to 10.64%, and of the nonfullerene-based OPVs, from 3.34% to 10.59%. These PDI-ionene interlayers enable chemical and morphological control of interfacial doping and conductivity, demonstrating that the conductive channels are crucial for charge transport in doped organic semiconductor films. Using these novel interlayers with efficient doping and high conductivity, both fullerene- and nonfullerene-based OPVs are achieved with PCEs exceeding 9% over interlayer thicknesses ranging from ≈3 to 40 nm.


conductivity; morphology characterizations; organic semiconductors; organic solar cells; self-doping


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