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Cell Mol Immunol. 2018 Jun;15(6):575-585. doi: 10.1038/cmi.2017.137. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Genetic and epigenetic influences on the loss of tolerance in autoimmunity.

Author information

1
Department of Dermatology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 139 Middle Renmin Road, 410011, Changsha, Hunan, China.
2
Department of Dermatology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 139 Middle Renmin Road, 410011, Changsha, Hunan, China. qianlu5860@csu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Immunological tolerance loss is fundamental to the development of autoimmunity; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Immune tolerance consists of central and peripheral tolerance. Central tolerance, which occurs in the thymus for T cells and bone marrow for B cells, is the primary way that the immune system discriminates self from non-self. Peripheral tolerance, which occurs in tissues and lymph nodes after lymphocyte maturation, controls self-reactive immune cells and prevents over-reactive immune responses to various environment factors. Loss of tolerance results in autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes (T1D) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The etiology and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases are highly complicated. Both genetic predisposition and epigenetic modifications are implicated in the loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. In this review, we will discuss the genetic and epigenetic influences on tolerance breakdown in autoimmunity. Genetic and epigenetic influences on autoimmune diseases, such as SLE, RA, T1D and PBC, will also be briefly discussed.

PMID:
29503444
PMCID:
PMC6079019
DOI:
10.1038/cmi.2017.137

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