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Neurol India. 2018 Mar-Apr;66(Supplement):S59-S67. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.226447.

Pediatric movement disorders.

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Department of Neurology, P D Hinduja National Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.


Pediatric movement disorders are commonly encountered clinical entities in the pediatric outpatient department. These disorders are a heterogenous group of disorders and may represent an underlying genetic disorder, a metabolic disorder or a hypoxic-ischemic insult during the perinatal period. Hyperkinetic movement disorders are more common as compared to hypokinetic disorders. This is unlike the situation in adult movement disorders where hypokinetic disorders are more often seen. A child's nervous system is more prone to hypoxic-ischemic insults due to its higher metabolic demands and the presence of an immature blood-brain barrier. The commonest movement disorders seen are tics, dystonia and chorea. Myoclonus is commonly associated with epilepsy syndromes. The aetiology of paediatric movement disorders depends on their course, their static or progressive nature, and whether an isolated symptom or an association with other neurological symptoms is present. The clue to the diagnosis is the proper recognition of the movement prevalent in the disorder.


Children; hyperkinetic; hypokinetic; pediatric movement disorders; review

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