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Neurol India. 2018 Mar-Apr;66(Supplement):S48-S58. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.226439.

Dystonia: A review.

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Department of Neurology, Luton and Dunstable University Hospital, University College of London Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK.


Dystonia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions that cause abnormal repetitive movements, abnormal postures, or both. The new consensus classifies dystonia into two axes to characterize clinical characteristics, and etiology. This system allows correct identification of isolated and combined forms of dystonia and retains the description of generalized and focal dystonia which is very useful in planning investigations and management. The characterization of dystonia for its better identification and a brief overview of its management are discussed in this article. The treatment options for dystonia include drugs, botulinum toxin and deep brain stimulation surgery.


Botulinum toxin; combined dystonia; isolated dystonia

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