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Neuron. 2018 Mar 21;97(6):1341-1355.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.01.045. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Rapid Rebalancing of Excitation and Inhibition by Cortical Circuitry.

Author information

1
Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA.
2
Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR 97239, USA.
3
Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA. Electronic address: wehr@uoregon.edu.

Abstract

Excitation is balanced by inhibition to cortical neurons across a wide range of conditions. To understand how this relationship is maintained, we broadly suppressed the activity of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) inhibitory neurons and asked how this affected the balance of excitation and inhibition throughout auditory cortex. Activating archaerhodopsin in PV+ neurons effectively suppressed them in layer 4. However, the resulting increase in excitation outweighed Arch suppression and produced a net increase in PV+ activity in downstream layers. Consequently, suppressing PV+ neurons did not reduce inhibition to principal neurons (PNs) but instead resulted in a tightly coordinated increase in both excitation and inhibition. The increase in inhibition constrained the magnitude of PN spiking responses to the increase in excitation and produced nonlinear changes in spike tuning. Excitatory-inhibitory rebalancing is mediated by strong PN-PV+ connectivity within and between layers and is likely engaged during normal cortical operation to ensure balance in downstream neurons.

PMID:
29503186
PMCID:
PMC5875716
[Available on 2019-03-21]
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuron.2018.01.045

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