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Clin Nutr. 2019 Apr;38(2):940-947. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.02.002. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Do patterns of nutrient intake predict self-reported anxiety, depression and psychological distress in adults? SEPAHAN study.

Author information

1
Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
2
Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular, Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address: esmaillzadeh@hlth.mui.ac.ir.
3
Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular, Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
4
Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
5
Psychosomatic Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
6
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
7
Centre of Research Excellence in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, University of Adelaide Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia.
8
Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Despite the growing evidence about dietary patterns, this study aimed at the association between patterns of nutrients intake and psychological disorders.

METHODS:

In this cross-sectional study, diet and psychological factors including anxiety, depression, and general health (GHQ) were assessed through self-administered questionnaires in 3846 Iranian adults. Daily intakes of 57 nutrients and bioactive compounds were calculated. Nutrient patterns (NPs) were derived using factor analysis.

RESULTS:

Three NPs were identified: 1) high in individual amino acids, cobalamin, zinc, phosphorus, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol and pantothenic acid named as "omnivore"; 2) high in thiamin, folate, selenium, iron, starch, maltose, betaine, calcium, riboflavin, and niacin; named as "grains and dairy". Mono-unsaturated fats, vitamin E and polyunsaturated fats were inversely associated with this pattern; 3) "fruits and vegetables" NP high in copper, vitamin C, glucose, fructose, potassium, dietary fiber, sucrose, vitamin A, magnesium and vitamin K. After adjustment for confounders, men in the top tertile of the omnivore NP had lower anxiety score than those in the bottom tertile (P = 0.04). Men in the highest tertile of the first NP were less likely to be depressed (OR = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.26-0.96; P-trend = 0.04). Women in the highest tertile of this pattern had lower GHQ scores than those in the bottom tertile (P = 0.01) and had lower odds of psychological distress (OR = 0.75, 95%CI: 0.57-0.99, P-trend = 0.0.04).

CONCLUSIONS:

An "omnivore" like diet high in amino acids, cobalamin, zinc, phosphorus, saturated fat, cholesterol and pantothenic acid is associated with reduced psychological disorders. Prospective studies are recommended to confirm our results.

KEYWORDS:

Anxiety; Depression; Factor analysis; Nutrient patterns; Psychological distress

PMID:
29503058
DOI:
10.1016/j.clnu.2018.02.002

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