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J Physiol. 2018 May 1;596(9):1723-1745. doi: 10.1113/JP275498. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

The vulnerability of spinal motoneurons and soma size plasticity in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Author information

1
Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Physiology, Boonshoft School of Medicine and College of Science and Mathematics, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, 45435, USA.
2
Department of Biomedical, Industrial, and Human Factors Engineering, College of Engineering and Computer Science, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435, USA.

Abstract

KEY POINTS:

Motoneuron soma size is a largely plastic property that is altered during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progression. We report evidence of systematic spinal motoneuron soma size plasticity in mutant SOD1-G93A mice at various disease stages and across sexes, spinal regions and motoneuron types. We show that disease-vulnerable motoneurons exhibit early increased soma sizes. We show via computer simulations that the measured changes in soma size have a profound impact on the excitability of disease-vulnerable motoneurons. This study reveals a novel form of plasticity in ALS and suggests a potential target for altering motoneuron function and survival.

ABSTRACT:

α-Motoneuron soma size is correlated with the cell's excitability and function, and has been posited as a plastic property that changes during cellular maturation, injury and disease. This study examined whether α-motoneuron somas change in size over disease progression in the G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterized by progressive motoneuron death. We used 2D- and 3D-morphometric analysis of motoneuron size and measures of cell density at four key disease stages: neonatal (P10 - with earliest known disease changes); young adult (P30 - presymptomatic with early motoneuron death); symptom onset (P90 - with death of 70-80% of motoneurons); and end-stage (P120+ - with full paralysis of hindlimbs). We additionally examined differences in lumbar vs. sacral vs. cervical motoneurons; in motoneurons from male vs. female mice; and in fast vs. slow motoneurons. We present the first evidence of plastic changes in the soma size of spinal α-motoneurons occurring throughout different stages of ALS with profound effects on motoneuron excitability. Somatic changes are time dependent and are characterized by early-stage enlargement (P10 and P30); no change around symptom onset; and shrinkage at end-stage. A key finding in the study indicates that disease-vulnerable motoneurons exhibit increased soma sizes (P10 and P30). This pattern was confirmed across spinal cord regions, genders and motoneuron types. This extends the theory of motoneuron size-based vulnerability in ALS: not only are larger motoneurons more vulnerable to death in ALS, but are also enlarged further in the disease. Such information is valuable for identifying ALS pathogenesis mechanisms.

KEYWORDS:

ALS; motoneurons; soma size

PMID:
29502344
PMCID:
PMC5924829
DOI:
10.1113/JP275498
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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