Send to

Choose Destination
Pharmacology. 2018;101(5-6):269-277. doi: 10.1159/000487144. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Inhibitory Effects of Benzaldehyde, Vanillin, Muscone and Borneol on P-Glycoprotein in Caco-2 Cells and Everted Gut Sac.

Author information

Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education/College of Life Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, China.
Hospital of Xi'an City, Xi'an, China.
Shenzhen Longhua District Central Hospital, Shenzhen, China.



In clinical practice, herbal medicines have played an important role in the modulation of drug transporters through the combination of conventional prescription drugs, which necessitates the elucidation of herb-drug interactions. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of benzaldehyde, vanillin, muscone, and borneol on P-glycoprotein (P-gp).


The effects of the 4 compounds on the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 (Rho-123) in vinblastine-treated Caco-2 (VB-Caco-2) cells were studied by monitoring fluorescence intensity through a flow cytometry assay, and the effects of these compounds on Rho-123 transport through VB-Caco-2 monolayers and Rho-123 intestinal absorption in the rat everted gut sac were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, P-gp expression in VB-Caco-2 cells was assessed using flow cytometry and Western blot analysis, and the relative ABCB1 mRNA level was determined by Real-time RT-PCR.


The results showed that benzaldehyde, vanillin, muscone, and borneol significantly increased Rho-123 uptake in VB-Caco-2 cells, increased the absorption rate and apparent permeability coefficient of Rho-123 in rat jejunum and ileum, and decreased the efflux ratio of Rho-123 from 6.52 to less than 2 during transport across VB-Caco-2 cell monolayers. In addition, these compounds reduced the protein and ABCB1 mRNA levels of P-gp in VB-Caco-2 cells.


These data indicate that benzaldehyde, vanillin, muscone and borneol could effectively reverse multidrug resistance via inhibiting the P-gp function and expression pathway. The data provide fodder for further investigation into the interaction between the 4 compounds and other drugs transported by P-gp.


Multidrug resistance; Benzaldehyde; Borneol; Muscone; P-glycoprotein ; Vanillin

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for S. Karger AG, Basel, Switzerland
Loading ...
Support Center