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J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Jun 12;219:50-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.02.039. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Codonopsis: A review.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine (Peking Union Medical College), Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address: gaoshiman151@163.com.
2
Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine (Peking Union Medical College), Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address: liujiushi90@163.com.
3
Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine (Peking Union Medical College), Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address: mwang@implad.ac.cn.
4
Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine (Peking Union Medical College), Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address: tingcaoting@163.com.
5
Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine (Peking Union Medical College), Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address: ydqi@implad.ac.cn.
6
Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine (Peking Union Medical College), Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address: bgzhang@implad.ac.cn.
7
Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine (Peking Union Medical College), Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address: xbsun@implad.ac.cn.
8
Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine (Peking Union Medical College), Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address: htliu0718@126.com.
9
Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine (Peking Union Medical College), Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address: pgxiao@implad.ac.cn.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Species of the genus Codonopsis are perennial herbs mainly distributed throughout East, Southeast and Central Asia. As recorded, they have been used as traditional Chinese medicines since the Qing Dynasty, where they were claimed for strengthening the spleen and tonifying the lung, as well as nourishing blood and engendering liquid. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia, such as tea, wine, soup, plaster, and porridge.

AIM OF THE REVIEW:

The review aims to assess the ethnopharmacological uses, explicit the material basis and pharmacological action, promote the safety of medical use, and suggest the future research potentials of Codonopsis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Information on the studies of Codonopsis was collected from scientific journals, books, and reports via library and electronic data search (PubMed, Elsevier, Scopus, Google Scholar, Springer, Science Direct, Wiley, Researchgate, ACS, EMBASE, Web of Science and CNKI). Meanwhile, it was also obtained from published works of material medica, folk records, ethnopharmacological literatures, Ph.D. and Masters Dissertation. Plant taxonomy was confirmed to the database "The Plant List" (www.theplantlist.org).

RESULTS:

Codonopsis has been used for medicinal purposes all around the world. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia. The chemical constituents of Codonopsis mainly are polyacetylenes, polyenes, flavonoids, lignans, alkaloids, coumarins, terpenoids, steroids, organic acids, saccharides, and so on. Extract of Codonopsis exhibit extensive pharmacological activities, including immune function regulation, hematopoiesis improvement, cardiovascular protection, neuroprotection, gastrointestinal function regulation, endocrine function regulation, cytotoxic and antibacterial effects, anti-aging and anti-oxidation, etc. Almost no obvious toxicity or side effect are observed and recorded for Codonopsis.

CONCLUSIONS:

The traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Codonopsis are reviewed in this paper. Species of the genus have long been used as traditional medicines and food materials, they are reported with a large number of chemical constituents with different structures, extensive pharmacological activities in immune system, blood system, digestive system, etc. and almost no toxicity. More profound studies on less popular species, pharmacodynamic material basis and pharmacological mechanism, and quality assurance are suggested to be carried out to fulfil the research on the long-term clinical use and new drug research of Codonopsis.

KEYWORDS:

Codonopsis; Pharmacology; Phytochemistry; Toxicology; Traditional uses

PMID:
29501674
DOI:
10.1016/j.jep.2018.02.039
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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