Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Neuroimmunol. 2018 May 15;318:80-86. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2018.02.011. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Circulating cytokine levels are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety among people with alcohol and drug use disorders.

Author information

1
Alcohol Research Group, Public Health Institute, 6001 Shellmound St, Suite 450, Emervyville, CA 94608, USA. Electronic address: pmartinez@arg.org.
2
Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Concurrent Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorders, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Box 104, 2381 Brumunddal, Norway. Electronic address: lars.lien@sykehuset-innlandet.no.
3
Alcohol Research Group, Public Health Institute, 6001 Shellmound St, Suite 450, Emervyville, CA 94608, USA. Electronic address: szemore@arg.org.
4
Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Concurrent Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorders, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Box 104, 2381 Brumunddal, Norway. Electronic address: j.g.bramness@medisin.uio.no.
5
Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Concurrent Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorders, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Box 104, 2381 Brumunddal, Norway; Norwegian Center for Addiction Research, University Of Oslo, Box 1171, Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: s.p.neupane@medisin.uio.no.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Psychological distress is common among people with a substance abuse disorder in treatment. Identifying correlates of psychological distress may serve as points of intervention to improve substance abuse treatment outcomes. Immune function measured as cytokine levels have been associated with psychological distress, but this association remains unexplored among people with a substance abuse disorder in treatment. This study aimed to examine whether cytokine levels in patients treated for a substance use disorder were related to depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress, and to observe these associations separately among people with a past year alcohol use disorder and those with a past year drug use disorder.

METHODS:

We collected cross-sectional data from 80 inpatients at five alcohol and substance abuse treatment centers in Norway. We determined alcohol and drug diagnoses, and assessed symptoms of depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress. We tested blood samples for IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ, and IL-10. We used multivariate linear regressions to examine the associations between cytokine levels and psychological distress measures.

RESULTS:

All cytokines were significantly and positively associated with depression score. INF-γ was significantly and negatively associated with anxiety, and IL-6 was significantly and positively associated psychological distress. Among people with only an alcohol use disorder, IL-6 was positively associated with depression and psychological distress scores, and IL-10 was negatively associated with anxiety score. Among people with only a drug use disorder, TNF-α was positively associated with depression score.

CONCLUSION:

The relationship between immune function and psychological distress is robust in the context of substance abuse, and further research is warranted.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol abuse; Anxiety; Cytokines; Depression; Drug abuse; Psychological distress; Substance abuse treatment

PMID:
29500107
PMCID:
PMC5880738
[Available on 2019-05-15]
DOI:
10.1016/j.jneuroim.2018.02.011

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center