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Sensors (Basel). 2018 Mar 2;18(3). pii: E760. doi: 10.3390/s18030760.

A Lightweight RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol Based on Physical Unclonable Function.

Xu H1,2, Ding J3,4, Li P5,6, Zhu F7,8, Wang R9,10.

Author information

1
School of Computer Science, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023, China. xuhe@njupt.edu.cn.
2
Jiangsu High Technology Research Key Laboratory for Wireless Sensor Networks, Nanjing 210003, China. xuhe@njupt.edu.cn.
3
School of Computer Science, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023, China. 1016041216@njupt.edu.cn.
4
Jiangsu High Technology Research Key Laboratory for Wireless Sensor Networks, Nanjing 210003, China. 1016041216@njupt.edu.cn.
5
School of Computer Science, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023, China. lipeng@njupt.edu.cn.
6
Jiangsu High Technology Research Key Laboratory for Wireless Sensor Networks, Nanjing 210003, China. lipeng@njupt.edu.cn.
7
School of Computer Science, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023, China. zhufeng@njupt.edu.cn.
8
Jiangsu High Technology Research Key Laboratory for Wireless Sensor Networks, Nanjing 210003, China. zhufeng@njupt.edu.cn.
9
School of Computer Science, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023, China. wangrc@njupt.edu.cn.
10
Jiangsu High Technology Research Key Laboratory for Wireless Sensor Networks, Nanjing 210003, China. wangrc@njupt.edu.cn.

Abstract

With the fast development of the Internet of Things, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been widely applied into many areas. Nevertheless, security problems of the RFID technology are also gradually exposed, when it provides life convenience. In particular, the appearance of a large number of fake and counterfeit goods has caused massive loss for both producers and customers, for which the clone tag is a serious security threat. If attackers acquire the complete information of a tag, they can then obtain the unique identifier of the tag by some technological means. In general, because there is no extra identifier of a tag, it is difficult to distinguish an original tag and its clone one. Once the legal tag data is obtained, attackers can be able to clone this tag. Therefore, this paper shows an efficient RFID mutual verification protocol. This protocol is based on the Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) and the lightweight cryptography to achieve efficient verification of a single tag. The protocol includes three process: tag recognition, mutual verification and update. The tag recognition is that the reader recognizes the tag; mutual verification is that the reader and tag mutually verify the authenticity of each other; update is supposed to maintain the latest secret key for the following verification. Analysis results show that this protocol has a good balance between performance and security.

KEYWORDS:

Physical Unclonable Function; RFID technology; lightweight cryptography; mutual verification

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