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Expert Rev Hematol. 2018 Apr;11(4):325-336. doi: 10.1080/17474086.2018.1447921. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Possible targets to treat myeloma-related osteoclastogenesis.

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a Department Medicine and Surgery , University of Parma , Parma , Italy.
b Hematology and BMT Center , "Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma" , Parma , Italy.


Bone destruction is the hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM). About 80% of MM patients at diagnosis presents myeloma bone disease (MBD) leading to bone pain and pathological fractures, significantly affecting patients' quality of life. Bisphosphonates are the treatment of choice for MBD, but osteolytic lesions remain a critical issue in the current management of MM patients. Several studies clarified the mechanisms involved in MM-induced osteoclast formation and activation, leading to the identification of new possible targets and the development of better bone-directed therapies, that are discussed in this review. Areas covered: This review summarizes the latest advances in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of the osteoclast formation and activation induced by MM cells, and the new therapeutic targets identified. Recently, neutralizing antibodies (i.e. denosumab, siltuximab, daratumumab), as well as recombinant fusion proteins, and receptor molecular inhibitors, have been developed to block these targets. Clinical trials testing their anti-MBD potential are ongoing. The emerging role of exosomes and microRNAs in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation has been also discussed. Expert commentary: Although further studies are needed to arrive at a clinical approving, the basis for the development of better bone-directed therapies has been established.


Bone disease; RANKL; inflammation; multiple myeloma; osteoclast; therapeutic targets

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