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Anatomy, Shoulder and Upper Limb, Muscles.


Javed O, Ashmyan R1.


StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019-.
2019 Apr 6.

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Hughston Clinic


The upper limb comprises many muscles which are organized into anatomical compartments. These muscles act on the various joints of the hand, arm, and shoulder, maintaining tone, providing stability and allowing precise fluid movement. Axioappendicular groups of muscles arise from the axial skeleton to act upon the pectoral girdle. Scapulohumeral muscles originate from the scapula and insert into the proximal humerus. Included in this category are the rotator cuff muscles which provide stability to the glenohumeral joint. In the arm, the muscles of the anterior compartment are involved in flexion of the forearm, and the posterior comprises of the forearm extensors. Similarly, the anterior compartment of the forearm contains the flexors of the hand and posterior has extensors. The hand is divided into the thenar, the hypothenar, the adductor compartment, as well as the short muscles of the hand.[1][2][3][4][3]

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