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Abdom Radiol (NY). 2018 May;43(5):1067-1083. doi: 10.1007/s00261-018-1525-0.

Acute non-traumatic disease of the abdominal aorta.

Author information

1
Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA. curtisw@mir.wustl.edu.
2
Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Abstract

Acute pathology in the abdominal aorta is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most feared complication of abdominal aortic disease is acute rupture in the setting of atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Although frank rupture often is easily diagnosed on CT, other findings such as a hyperattenuating crescent, discontinuous intimal calcium, and draping of the aorta are subtle signs of aneurysm instability. A true aneurysm should be distinguished from a rapidly growing, saccular pseudoaneurysm in the setting of infectious aortitis, as treatment strategy differs. Acute aortic syndrome involving the abdominal aorta, such as dissection and intramural hematoma, often is an extension of thoracic aortic disease, whereas penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers occasionally involve only the abdominal aorta. The goal of treating acute aortic pathology is to repair and prevent rupture, as well as restore and maintain perfusion of the lower extremities, kidneys, and mesentery. However, both open and endovascular repair of the abdominal aorta may become acutely complicated, resulting in compromise of these goals. Examples include aortoenteric fistula, endoleak, anastomotic pseudoaneurysm, graft infection, and thrombosis or kinking of a stent graft resulting in ischemia of the limbs and mesentery.

KEYWORDS:

Aortic aneurysm; Aortic injury; Aortic instability; Aortic rupture; Non-traumatic aortic injury

PMID:
29492609
DOI:
10.1007/s00261-018-1525-0

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