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J Biol Chem. 2018 Apr 20;293(16):5956-5974. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA117.000800. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Mice lacking ARV1 have reduced signs of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Author information

1
From the Institute of Metabolic Disorders, Genesis Biotechnology Group, Hamilton, New Jersey 08691.
2
Hope College, Holland, Michigan 49423.
3
Invivotek, Genesis Biotechnology Group, Hamilton, New Jersey 08691, and.
4
From the Institute of Metabolic Disorders, Genesis Biotechnology Group, Hamilton, New Jersey 08691, jnickels@venenumbiodesign.com.
5
the Rutgers Center for Lipid Research, New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition, and Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901.

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a term used to characterize individuals having at least three of the following diseases: obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is widespread, and the number of individuals with MetS is increasing. However, the events leading to the manifestation of MetS are not well-understood. Here, we show that loss of murine ARV1 (mARV1) results in resistance to acquiring diseases associated with MetS. Arv1-/- animals fed a high-fat diet were resistant to diet-induced obesity, had lower blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and retained glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Livers showed no gross morphological changes, contained lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fatty acids, and showed fewer signs of NAFLD. Knockout animals had elevated levels of liver farnesol X receptor (FXR) protein and its target, small heterodimer protein (SHP). They also had decreased levels of CYP7α1, CYP8β1, and mature SREBP1 protein, evidence suggesting that liver FXR signaling was activated. Strengthening this hypothesis was the fact that peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor α (PPARα) protein was elevated, along with its target, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Arv1-/- animals excreted more fecal cholesterol, free fatty acids, and bile acids. Their small intestines had 1) changes in bile acid composition, 2) an increase in the level of the intestinal FXR antagonist, tauromuricholic acid, and 3) showed signs of attenuated FXR signaling. Overall, we believe that ARV1 function is deleterious when consuming a high-fat diet. We further hypothesize that ARV1 is critical for initiating events required for the progression of diseases associated with MetS and NAFLD.

KEYWORDS:

cholesterol; diabetes; dyslipidemia; fatty liver disease; glucose; insulin; insulin resistance; lipid; metabolic syndrome; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; obesity; type 2 diabetes

PMID:
29491146
PMCID:
PMC5912475
[Available on 2019-04-20]
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.RA117.000800
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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