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J Biol Chem. 1987 Jan 25;262(3):1244-53.

Lysosomal cystine transport. Effect of intralysosomal pH and membrane potential.


The regulation of lysosomal cystine transport was studied using cystine dimethyl ester-loaded lysosomes isolated from human diploid fibroblasts. Net efflux from normal fibroblast lysosomes was compared to that from lysosomes of cystinotic fibroblasts, which contain an inherited mutation decreasing lysosomal cystine transport. This exodus of cystine from normal fibroblast lysosomes was greater than from cystinotic fibroblast lysosomes. When lysosomes were incubated with both 5 mM MgCl2 and 2 mM ATP (Mg/ATP), the amount of lysosomal cystine lost from normal lysosomes doubled, but the amount of cystine lost from cystinotic lysosomes remained small. This effect of Mg/ATP on cystine loss from lysosomes isolated from normal fibroblasts was abolished when either carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone or N-ethylmaleimide was present, suggesting that the effect of Mg/ATP was mediated by the action of a lysosomal proton-translocating ATPase. Addition of KCl, RbCl, or NaCl to normal lysosomes caused smaller increases in cystine exodus. A variety of experimental conditions altered lysosomal pH, membrane potential, and the cystine lost from normal fibroblast lysosomes. These same experimental conditions produced similar alterations in the lysosomal pH and membrane potential of cystinotic fibroblast lysosomes without a comparable alteration in cystine loss. These results have led us to propose a model in which the transport of cystine out of the normal lysosome is regulated by both the lysosomal membrane potential gradient and the transmembrane pH gradient.

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