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Vox Sang. 2018 May;113(4):368-377. doi: 10.1111/vox.12643. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Plasma temperature during methylene blue/light treatment influences virus inactivation capacity and product quality.

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German Red Cross Blood Service NSTOB, Springe, Germany.
Macopharma S.A., Tourcoing, France.
Maco Pharma International GmbH, Langen, Germany.



Photodynamic treatment using methylene blue (MB) and visible light is in routine use for pathogen inactivation of human plasma in different countries. Ambient and product temperature conditions for human plasma during production may vary between production sites. The influence of different temperature conditions on virus inactivation capacity and plasma quality of the THERAFLEX MB-Plasma procedure was investigated in this study.


Plasma units equilibrated to 5 ± 2°C, room temperature (22 ± 2°C) or 30 ± 2°C were treated with MB/light and comparatively assessed for the inactivation capacity for three different viruses, concentrations of MB and its photoproducts, activity of various plasma coagulation factors and clotting time.


Reduced solubility of the MB pill was observed at 5 ± 2°C. Photocatalytic degradation of MB increased with increasing temperature, and the greatest formation of photoproducts (mainly azure B) occurred at 30 ± 2°C. Inactivation of suid herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and vesicular stomatitis virus was significantly lower at 5 ± 2°C than at higher temperatures. MB/light treatment affected clotting times and the activity of almost all investigated plasma proteins. Factor VIII (-17·7 ± 8·3%, 22 ± 2°C) and fibrinogen (-14·4 ± 16·4%, 22 ± 2°C) showed the highest decreases in activity. Increasing plasma temperatures resulted in greater changes in clotting time and higher losses of plasma coagulation factor activity.


Temperature conditions for THERAFLEX MB-Plasma treatment must be carefully controlled to assure uniform quality of pathogen-reduced plasma in routine production. Inactivation of cooled plasma is not recommended.


methylene blue; pathogen inactivation; plasma

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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