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Dose Response. 2018 Feb 15;16(1):1559325817750067. doi: 10.1177/1559325817750067. eCollection 2018 Jan-Mar.

Biological Entanglement-Like Effect After Communication of Fish Prior to X-Ray Exposure.

Author information

1
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
2
Department of Chemistry, Mass Spectrometry Facility, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

The phenomenon by which irradiated organisms including cells in vitro communicate with unirradiated neighbors is well established in biology as the radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE). Generally, the purpose of this communication is thought to be protective and adaptive, reflecting a highly conserved evolutionary mechanism enabling rapid adjustment to stressors in the environment. Stressors known to induce the effect were recently shown to include chemicals and even pathological agents. The mechanism is unknown but our group has evidence that physical signals such as biophotons acting on cellular photoreceptors may be implicated. This raises the question of whether quantum biological processes may occur as have been demonstrated in plant photosynthesis. To test this hypothesis, we decided to see whether any form of entanglement was operational in the system. Fish from 2 completely separate locations were allowed to meet for 2 hours either before or after which fish from 1 location only (group A fish) were irradiated. The results confirm RIBE signal production in both skin and gill of fish, meeting both before and after irradiation of group A fish. The proteomic analysis revealed that direct irradiation resulted in pro-tumorigenic proteomic responses in rainbow trout. However, communication from these irradiated fish, both before and after they had been exposed to a 0.5 Gy X-ray dose, resulted in largely beneficial proteomic responses in completely nonirradiated trout. The results suggest that some form of anticipation of a stressor may occur leading to a preconditioning effect or temporally displaced awareness after the fish become entangled.

KEYWORDS:

biophotons; bystander effect; ionising radiation; pre- and postconditioning; quantum biology

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of Conflicting Interests: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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