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Diabetes Metab. 2018 Mar;44(2):112-120. doi: 10.1016/j.diabet.2018.01.017. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Comparing SGLT-2 inhibitors to DPP-4 inhibitors as an add-on therapy to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
East Carolina University, Department of Internal Medicine, 521, Moye boulevard (2nd floor), 27834 Greenville, NC, United States. Electronic address: mishrikyb@ecu.edu.
2
Division of Endocrinology, East Carolina University, 27834 Greenville, NC, United States.
3
Laupus Health Sciences Library, East Carolina University, 27834 Greenville, NC, United States.
4
Department of Family Medicine, East Carolina University, 27834 Greenville, NC, United States.

Abstract

AIMS:

Our aim was to compare Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) to Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) as add-on therapy to metformin.

METHODS:

We searched for randomized trials comparing SGLT-2i to DPP-4i as add-on therapy to metformin in Type 2 diabetes.We pooled trials reporting outcomes between 12 and 26 weeks together while trials reporting results ≥52 weeks were pooled together. The primary outcomes were the change in haemoglobin A1c (A1c) at ≤26 and ≥52 weeks. Sensitivity analyses were performed according to the dose of SGLT-2i and according to baseline A1c for the primary outcomes.

RESULTS:

Seven trials met our inclusion criteria. There was a statistically significant reduction in A1c at ≥52 weeks favouring SGLT-2i compared to DPP-4i (MD [95% CI]=-0.11% [-0.20, -0.03]) but no significant difference at ≤26 weeks (MD [95% CI]=-0.05% [-0.16, 0.05]). SGLT-2i caused significantly more weight loss compared to DPP-4i at ≤26 weeks and ≥52 weeks (MD [95% CI]=-2.31kg [-2.66, -1.96] and -2.45kg [-2.83, -2.07], respectively). SGLT-2i treated patients had a significantly more genital infection compared to DPP-4i. On restricting the analysis according to the SGLT-2i FDA-approved dose, only higher doses at ≥52 weeks showed a statistically significant reduction in A1c compared to DPP-4i. On restricting the analysis according to baseline A1c, results favoured DPP-4i if baseline A1c was<8.5%, but favoured SGLT-2i if ≥8.5%.

CONCLUSION:

While both SGLT-2i and DPP-4i can reduce A1c, SGLT-2i causes a more robust A1c reduction and more weight loss but with more genital infections. Higher doses of SGLT-2i showed more efficacy when compared to DPP-4i; however, this data should be interpreted cautiously given the limited number of trials.

KEYWORDS:

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors; Meta-analysis; Sodium-glucose co-transport 2 inhibitors; Type 2 diabetes

PMID:
29477373
DOI:
10.1016/j.diabet.2018.01.017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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