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Bone. 2018 May;110:267-283. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2018.02.014. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Prolonged high force high repetition pulling induces osteocyte apoptosis and trabecular bone loss in distal radius, while low force high repetition pulling induces bone anabolism.

Author information

1
Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Philadelphia, PA 19140, United States. Electronic address: mary.barbe@temple.edu.
2
Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Philadelphia, PA 19140, United States.
3
Temple University College of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Philadelphia, PA 19122, United States.
4
Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiation Oncology, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States.
5
College of Osteopathic Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biddeford, ME 04005, United States.

Abstract

We have an operant rat model of upper extremity reaching and grasping in which we examined the impact of performing a high force high repetition (High-ForceHR) versus a low force low repetition (Low-ForceHR) task for 18weeks on the radius and ulna, compared to age-matched controls. High-ForceHR rats performed at 4 reaches/min and 50% of their maximum voluntary pulling force for 2h/day, 3days/week. Low-ForceHR rats performed at 6% maximum voluntary pulling force. High-ForceHR rats showed decreased trabecular bone volume in the distal metaphyseal radius, decreased anabolic indices in this same bone region (e.g., decreased osteoblasts and bone formation rate), and increased catabolic indices (e.g., microcracks, increased osteocyte apoptosis, secreted sclerostin, RANKL, and osteoclast numbers), compared to controls. Distal metaphyseal trabeculae in the ulna of High-ForceHR rats showed a non-significant decrease in bone volume, some catabolic indices (e.g., decreased trabecular numbers) yet also some anabolic indices (e.g., increased osteoblasts and trabecular thickness). In contrast, the mid-diaphyseal region of High-ForceHR rats' radial and ulnar bones showed few to no microarchitecture differences and no changes in apoptosis, sclerostin or RANKL levels, compared to controls. In further contrast, Low-ForceHR rats showed increased trabecular bone volume in the radius in the distal metaphysis and increased cortical bone area its mid-diaphysis. These changes were accompanied by increased anabolic indices, no microcracks or osteocyte apoptosis, and decreased RANKL in each region, compared to controls. Ulnar bones of Low-ForceHR rats also showed increased anabolic indices, although fewer than in the adjacent radius. Thus, prolonged performance of an upper extremity reaching and grasping task is loading-, region-, and bone-dependent, with high force loads at high repetition rates inducing region-specific increases in bone degradative changes that were most prominent in distal radial trabeculae, while low force task loads at high repetition rates induced adaptive bone responses.

KEYWORDS:

Mechanical loading; Osteoactivin; Osteoprotegerin; Overuse injury; RANK; RANKL; Sclerostin

PMID:
29476978
PMCID:
PMC5878749
DOI:
10.1016/j.bone.2018.02.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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