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J Nucl Med. 2018 Jul;59(7):1159-1164. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.117.204164. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Impact of the Arterial Input Function Recording Method on Kinetic Parameters in Small-Animal PET.

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Werner Siemens Imaging Center, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
International Max Planck Research School for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Tuebingen, Germany; and.
Werner Siemens Imaging Center, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.
Institute for Brain and Spinal Cord, Sorbonne University, UPMC, INSERM U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Paris, France.


The goal of this study was to validate the use of an MR-compatible blood sampler (BS) with a detector system based on a lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillator and avalanche photodiodes for small-animal PET. Methods: Five rats underwent a 60-min 18F-FDG study. For each animal, the arterial input function (AIF) was derived from the BS recording, from manual sampling (MS), and from the PET image. These AIFs were applied for kinetic modeling of the striatum using the irreversible 2-tissue-compartment model. The MS-based technique with a dispersion correction served as a reference approach, and the kinetic parameters that were estimated with the BS- and the image-derived AIFs were compared with the reference values. Additionally, the effect of applying a population-based activity ratio for plasma to whole blood (p/wb) and the dispersion correction was assessed. Results: The K1, k2, and k3 values estimated with the reference approach were 0.174 ± 0.037 mL/min/cm3, 0.342 ± 0.080 1/min, and 0.048 ± 0.009 1/min, respectively. The corresponding parameters obtained with the BS- and image-derived AIFs deviated from these values by 0.6%-18.8% and 16.7%-47.9%, respectively. To compensate for the error in the BS-based technique, data from one MS collected at the end of the experiment were combined with the data from the first 10 min of the BS recording. This approach reduced the deviation in the kinetic parameters to 1.8%-6.3%. Using p/wb led to a 1.7%-8.3% difference from the reference parameters. The sensitivity of the BS was 23%, the energy resolution for the 511-keV photopeak was 19%, and the timing resolution was 11.2 ns. Conclusion: Online recording of the blood activity level with the BS allows precise measurement of AIF, without loss of blood volume. Combining the BS data with one MS is the most accurate approach for the data analysis. The high sensitivity of the device may allow application of lower radioactivity doses.


PET; arterial input function; blood sampler; kinetic modeling

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