Send to

Choose Destination
Psychiatry Investig. 2018 Feb;15(2):111-117. doi: 10.30773/pi.2017.04.24. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Validation of the Korean version of the 16-Item Prodromal Questionnaire in a Non-Help-Seeking College Population.

Author information

Mindlink, Gwangju Bukgu Community Mental Health Center, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.
Department of Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.
Gwangju Mental Health Commission, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.
Department of Psychiatry, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.
Department of Psychology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.



To examine the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire (KPQ-16) in non-help-seeking university students.


Among 2,246 university students participated in the initial screening, 257 subjects with KPQ-16 scores ≥4 were interviewed. The criteria for ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis of the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) were the gold standard for diagnosis. An exploratory modified version of the questionnaire (mKPQ-16), to which three items from the Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory were added, was also used to compensate for items on thought and cognitive problems.


Seventeen subjects met the CAARMS criteria for UHR of psychosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was highest for the mKPQ-16 total score (AUROC=0.831, p<0.001). The use of cutoff total scores of 7 for the mKPQ-16 and 6 for the KPQ-16 resulted in the best balance of sensitivity (76.5% and 64.7%, respectively) and specificity (75.4% and 71.2%, respectively).


The Korean versions of the PQ-16 are good instruments for screening for psychosis risk in university students. This validation of a questionnaire version with a small number of items may make it feasible to screen large numbers of young adults in the community.


Attenuated psychosis syndrome; PQ-16; Schizophrenia; Screening; Ultra-high risk

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Publishing M2Community Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center