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Science. 2018 Apr 6;360(6384):111-114. doi: 10.1126/science.aao3297. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses.

Author information

1
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, 1350K Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Laboratoire d'Anthropobiologie Moléculaire et d'Imagerie de Synthèse UMR 5288, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, France.
3
Bioinformatics Center, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2200N Copenhagen, Denmark.
4
Department of Biotechnology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200, Pakistan.
5
National High-Throughput DNA Sequencing Center, 1353K Copenhagen, Denmark.
6
Department of Archaeology, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QE, UK.
7
The Charles McBurney Laboratory for Geoarchaeology, Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DZ, UK.
8
Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, 1210 Vienna, Austria.
9
Équipe Ethnologie préhistorique, ArScAn, CNRS, UMR 7041, Maison de l'Archéologie et de l'Ethnologie (MAE) René-Ginouvès, 92023 Nanterre Cédex, France.
10
Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 07745 Jena, Germany.
11
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique, Sociétés, Pratiques et Environnements, UMR 7209, 75005 Paris, France.
12
Archaeozoology section, Archaeometry Laboratory, University of Tehran, Tehran CP1417634934, Iran.
13
Osteology Department, National Museum of Iran, Tehran 1136918111, Iran.
14
Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14115, Iran.
15
Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
16
German Archaeological Institute, Department of Natural Sciences, 14195 Berlin, Germany.
17
Biodiversity Institute-Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA.
18
Anthropology Department, Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY 13820, USA.
19
Institute for Pre- and Protohistoric Archaeology and Archaeology of the Roman Provinces, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, 80799 München, Germany.
20
Institute for the History of Material Culture, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 191186, Russia.
21
Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam, Germany.
22
Issyk State Historical-Cultural Reserve Museum, 040400 Almaty Region, Enbekshikazak District, Kazakhstan.
23
Shejire DNA Project, 050046 Almaty, Kazakhstan.
24
Archaeological Research Collection, Tallinn University, 10130 Tallinn, Estonia.
25
Osteoarchaeology Practice and Research Center and Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University, 34320 Avcılar Istanbul, Turkey.
26
Ecology Group, Department of Biology, School of Arts and Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar 14201, Mongolia.
27
Department of Archaeology, Ulaanbaatar State University, Ulaanbaatar 51, Mongolia.
28
Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, 10315 Berlin, Germany.
29
S.Toraighyrov Pavlodar State University, Joint Research Center for Archeological Studies, 637000 Pavlodar, Kazakhstan.
30
Scientific Research Institute of Archaeology and Steppe Civilizations, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 050040 Almaty, Kazakhstan.
31
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.
32
Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK.
33
Department of Archaeology, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QE, UK. a.k.outram@exeter.ac.uk ludovic.orlando@univ-tlse3.fr.
34
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, 1350K Copenhagen, Denmark. a.k.outram@exeter.ac.uk ludovic.orlando@univ-tlse3.fr.

Abstract

The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5500 years ago, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient-horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient- and modern-horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4000 years ago to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age.

PMID:
29472442
DOI:
10.1126/science.aao3297
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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