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Am J Nephrol. 2018;47(2):120-129. doi: 10.1159/000486901. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Repeated Bioimpedance Measurements Predict Prognosis of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Fluid overload is a major risk factor for mortality in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, few studies have investigated the effect of chronic exposure to sustained fluid overload on long-term outcomes.

METHOD:

A total of 284 prevalent PD patients were included in this prospective study. Repeated multifrequency body composition analysis was performed 12 months apart, and 1-year cumulative chronic fluid overload were used to predict all-cause mortality and the risk for transfer to hemodialysis (HD) during the ensuing 15.6 ± 9.1 months.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of fluid overload was approximately 27%. Interestingly, a substantial number of hypervolemic patients at first test were persistently hypervolemic at their second test. With this, chronic fluid overload was observed in 18.3% (n = 52). Notably, most of chronic fluid overload patients had diabetes (86.5%), and it was accompanied by concomitant changes in peritoneal membrane characteristics, a higher progression rate to high transporter. The risk of transfer to HD increased 2.8 times in patients with chronic fluid overload than in those without. Also, it significantly increased the risk of mortality (p = 0.038). Surprisingly, subgroup analysis found that patients with euvolemic status at follow-up experienced no mortality despite being in a fluid overload state at baseline.

CONCLUSIONS:

One-year chronic exposure to fluid overload is a strong independent risk factor for transfer to HD and death in prevalent PD patients. Although the fluid status of most PD patients is not easily changed over time, becoming euvolemic during the entire PD treatment period seems to be very important.

KEYWORDS:

Bioimpedance test; Chronic fluid overload; Mortality; Peritoneal dialysis; Technical failure

PMID:
29471301
DOI:
10.1159/000486901

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