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PLoS One. 2018 Feb 22;13(2):e0193431. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193431. eCollection 2018.

Epidemiology and risk factors of extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

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Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.



The incidence of nosocomial infections from extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDR-PA) has been increasing worldwide. We investigated the prevalence and factors associated with XDR-PA infections, including the factors that predict mortality.


We retrospectively studied a cohort of adult, hospitalized patients with P. aeruginosa (PA) infections between April and December 2014.


Of the 255 patients with PA infections, 56 (22%) were due to XDR-PA, 32 (12.5%) to multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA), and 167 (65.5%) to non-MDR PA. Receiving total parenteral nutrition (adjusted OR [aOR] 6.21; 95% CI 1.05-36.70), prior carbapenem use (aOR 4.88; 95% CI 2.36-10.08), and prior fluoroquinolone use (aOR 3.38; 95% CI 1.44-7.97) were independently associated with the XDR-PA infections. All XDR-PA remained susceptible to colistin. Factors associated with mortality attributable to the infections were the presence of sepsis/septic shock (aOR 11.60; 95% CI 4.66-28.82), admission to a medical department (aOR 4.67; 95% CI 1.81-12.06), receiving a central venous catheter (aOR 3.78; 95% CI 1.50-9.57), and XDR-PA infection (aOR 2.73; 95% CI 1.05-7.08).


The prevalence of XDR-PA infections represented almost a quarter of Pseudomonas aeruginosa hospital-acquired infections and rendered a higher mortality. The prompt administration of an appropriate empirical antibiotic should be considered when an XDR-PA infection is suspected.

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