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Heart Asia. 2017 Aug 31;9(2):e010909. doi: 10.1136/heartasia-2017-010909. eCollection 2017.

Is white rice consumption a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai St' Luke and Mount Sinai West, New York, New York, USA.
Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
Mayo Clinic Libraries, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
Division of Gastroenterology, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Royal Thai Army, Bangkok, Thailand.
Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.
Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.



The main objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the association between white rice consumption and risk of metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes.


We conducted a comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from database inception through March 2016. Original studies that reported associations between white rice consumption and cardiovascular outcomes regardless of study design were selected. We extracted study characteristics and outcome data. Conflicts were resolved through consensus. Using the DerSimonian and Laird random effects models, we calculated pooled relative risks with 95% CI.


Our search identified 721 citations. 18 studies were included with a total of 1 777 059 individuals: 14 348 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); 5612 had metabolic syndrome (MetS); 10 839 had coronary heart disease (CHD); and 11 698 had stroke. Compared with the lowest category, the highest category of white rice consumption was only associated with 30% higher risk of MetS (pooled OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.65; p<0.001; I²=65.5%).


Higher white rice consumption has not been shown to be associated with increased risk of CHD, stroke and T2DM. However, white rice consumption may be associated with increased risk of MetS in certain populations.


Cardiovascular disease; Coronary heart disease; Meta-analysis; Metabolic syndrome; Stroke; Systematic review; Type 2 diabetes; White Rice consumption

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.

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