Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Nature. 2018 Mar 8;555(7695):190-196. doi: 10.1038/nature25738. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe.

Olalde I1, Brace S2, Allentoft ME3, Armit I4, Kristiansen K5, Booth T2, Rohland N1, Mallick S1,6,7, Szécsényi-Nagy A8, Mittnik A9,10, Altena E11, Lipson M1, Lazaridis I1,6, Harper TK12, Patterson N6, Broomandkhoshbacht N1,7, Diekmann Y13, Faltyskova Z13, Fernandes D14,15,16, Ferry M1,7, Harney E1, de Knijff P11, Michel M1,7, Oppenheimer J1,7, Stewardson K1,7, Barclay A17, Alt KW18,19,20, Liesau C21, Ríos P21, Blasco C21, Miguel JV22, García RM22, Fernández AA23, Bánffy E24,25, Bernabò-Brea M26, Billoin D27, Bonsall C28, Bonsall L29, Allen T30, Büster L4, Carver S31, Navarro LC4, Craig OE32, Cook GT33, Cunliffe B34, Denaire A35, Dinwiddy KE17, Dodwell N36, Ernée M37, Evans C38, Kuchařík M39, Farré JF40, Fowler C41, Gazenbeek M42, Pena RG21, Haber-Uriarte M23, Haduch E43, Hey G30, Jowett N44, Knowles T45, Massy K46, Pfrengle S9, Lefranc P47, Lemercier O48, Lefebvre A49,50, Martínez CH51,52,53, Olmo VG52,53, Ramírez AB51, Maurandi JL23, Majó T54, McKinley JI17, McSweeney K28, Mende BG8, Modi A55, Kulcsár G24, Kiss V24, Czene A56, Patay R57, Endrődi A58, Köhler K24, Hajdu T59,60, Szeniczey T59, Dani J61, Bernert Z60, Hoole M62, Cheronet O14,15, Keating D63, Velemínský P64, Dobeš M37, Candilio F65,66,67, Brown F30, Fernández RF68, Herrero-Corral AM69, Tusa S70, Carnieri E71, Lentini L72, Valenti A73, Zanini A74, Waddington C75, Delibes G76, Guerra-Doce E76, Neil B38, Brittain M38, Luke M77, Mortimer R36, Desideri J78, Besse M78, Brücken G79, Furmanek M80, Hałuszko A80, Mackiewicz M80, Rapiński A81, Leach S82, Soriano I83, Lillios KT84, Cardoso JL85,86, Pearson MP87, Włodarczak P88, Price TD89, Prieto P90, Rey PJ91, Risch R83, Rojo Guerra MA92, Schmitt A93, Serralongue J94, Silva AM95, Smrčka V96, Vergnaud L97, Zilhão J85,98,99, Caramelli D55, Higham T100, Thomas MG13, Kennett DJ101, Fokkens H102, Heyd V31,103, Sheridan A104, Sjögren KG5, Stockhammer PW46,105, Krause J105, Pinhasi R14,15, Haak W105,106, Barnes I2, Lalueza-Fox C107, Reich D1,6,7.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
2
Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK.
3
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 1350, Denmark.
4
School of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK.
5
University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 405 30, Sweden.
6
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
7
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
8
Laboratory of Archaeogenetics, Institute of Archaeology, Research Centre for the Humanities, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1097, Hungary.
9
Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo- and Palaeogenetics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72070, Germany.
10
Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena 07745, Germany.
11
Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2333 ZC, The Netherlands.
12
Department of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.
13
Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
14
Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.
15
Department of Anthropology, University of Vienna, Vienna 1090, Austria.
16
Research Center for Anthropology and Health, Department of Life Science, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456, Portugal.
17
Wessex Archaeology, Salisbury SP4 6EB, UK.
18
Center of Natural and Cultural History of Man, Danube Private University, Krems 3500, Austria.
19
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Basel University, Basel 4123, Switzerland.
20
Integrative Prehistory and Archaeological Science, Basel University, Basel, Switzerland.
21
Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049, Spain.
22
ARGEA S.L., Madrid 28011, Spain.
23
Área de Prehistoria, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30001, Spain.
24
Institute of Archaeology, Research Centre for the Humanities, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1097, Hungary.
25
Romano-Germanic Commission, German Archaeological Institute, Frankfurt am Main 60325, Germany.
26
Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Parma, Parma 43100, Italy.
27
INRAP, Institut National de Recherches Archéologiques Préventives, Buffard 25440, France.
28
School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK.
29
10 Merchiston Gardens, Edinburgh EH10 5DD, UK.
30
Oxford Archaeology, Oxford OX2 0ES, UK.
31
Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UU, UK.
32
BioArCh, Department of Archaeology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK.
33
Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride G75 0QF, UK.
34
Institute of Archaeology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2PG, UK.
35
University of Burgundy, Dijon 21000, France.
36
Oxford Archaeology East, Cambridge CB23 8SQ, UK.
37
Institute of Archaeology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague 118 01, Czech Republic.
38
Cambridge Archaeological Unit, Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0DT, UK.
39
Labrys o.p.s., Prague 198 00, Czech Republic.
40
Museu i Poblat Ibèric de Ca n'Oliver, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08290, Spain.
41
School of History, Classics & Archaeology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK.
42
INRAP, Institut National de Recherches Archéologiques Préventives, Nice 06300, France.
43
Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University, Kraków 31-007, Poland.
44
Great Orme Mines, Great Orme, Llandudno LL30 2XG, UK.
45
Bristol Radiocarbon Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UU, UK.
46
Institut für Vor- und Frühgeschichtliche Archäologie und Provinzialrömische Archäologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich 80539, Germany.
47
INRAP, Institut National de Recherches Archéologiques Préventives, Strasbourg 67100, France.
48
Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3, UMR 5140 ASM, Montpellier 34199, France.
49
INRAP, Institut National de Recherches Archéologiques Préventives, Metz 57063, France.
50
UMR 5199, Pacea, équipe A3P, Université de Bordeaux, Talence 33400, France.
51
TRÉBEDE, Patrimonio y Cultura SL, Torres de la Alameda 28813, Spain.
52
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares 28801, Spain.
53
Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Ciencias Policiales (IUICP), Alcalá de Henares 28801, Spain.
54
Archaeom, Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08193, Spain.
55
Department of Biology, University of Florence, Florence 50121, Italy.
56
Salisbury Ltd, Budaörs 2040, Hungary.
57
Ferenczy Museum Center, Szentendre 2100, Hungary.
58
Budapest History Museum, Budapest 1014, Hungary.
59
Department of Biological Anthropology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest 1117, Hungary.
60
Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest 1083, Hungary.
61
Déri Museum, Debrecen 4026, Hungary.
62
Historic Environment Scotland, Edinburgh EH9 1SH, UK.
63
Humanities Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.
64
Department of Anthropology, National Museum, Prague 115 79, Czech Republic.
65
Soprintendenza Archeologia belle arti e paesaggio per la città metropolitana di Cagliari e per le province di Oristano e Sud Sardegna, Cagliari 9124, Italy.
66
Physical Anthropology Section, University of Philadelphia Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
67
Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00185, Italy.
68
46 Cuidad Real Street, Parla 28982, Spain.
69
Departamento de Prehistoria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain.
70
Soprintendenza del Mare, Palermo 90133, Italy.
71
Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia, Università di Palermo, Palermo 90133, Italy.
72
Soprintendenza per i beni culturali e ambientali di Trapani, Trapani 91100, Italy.
73
Prima Archeologia del Mediterraneo, Partanna 91028, Italy.
74
Università degli Studi di Palermo, Agrigento 92100, Italy.
75
Archaeological Research Services Ltd, Bakewell DE45 1HB, UK.
76
Departamento de Prehistoria, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47011, Spain.
77
Albion Archaeology, Bedford MK42 0AS, UK.
78
Laboratory of Prehistoric Archaeology and Anthropology, Department F.-A. Forel for Environmental and Aquatic Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva 4, Switzerland.
79
General Department of Cultural Heritage Rhineland Palatinate, Department of Archaeology, Mainz 55116, Germany.
80
Institute of Archaeology, University of Wroclaw, Wrocław 50-137, Poland.
81
Institute of Archaeology, Silesian University in Opava, Opava 746 01, Czech Republic.
82
Department of Archaeology, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QE, UK.
83
Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08193, Spain.
84
Department of Anthropology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52240, USA.
85
Centro de Arqueologia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa 1600-214, Portugal.
86
Universidade Aberta, Lisboa 1269-001, Portugal.
87
Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London WC1H 0PY, UK.
88
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 31-016, Poland.
89
Laboratory for Archaeological Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.
90
University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Spain.
91
UMR 5204 Laboratoire Edytem, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, Chambéry 73376, France.
92
Department of Prehistory and Archaeology, Faculty of Philosophy and Letters, Valladolid University, Valladolid 47011, Spain.
93
UMR 7268 ADES, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, EFS, Faculté de médecine Nord, Marseille 13015, France.
94
Service archéologique, Conseil Général de la Haute-Savoie, Annecy 74000, France.
95
Laboratory of Prehistory, Research Center for Anthropology and Health, Department of Life Science, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456, Portugal.
96
Institute for History of Medicine and Foreign Languages, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague 121 08, Czech Republic.
97
ANTEA Bureau d'étude en Archéologie, Habsheim 68440, France.
98
Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona 08010, Spain.
99
Departament d'Història i Arqueologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08001, Spain.
100
Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, RLAHA, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK.
101
Department of Anthropology & Institute for Energy and the Environment, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.
102
Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands.
103
Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies, Section of Archaeology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
104
National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh EH1 1JF, UK.
105
Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena 07745, Germany.
106
Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, South Australia, Australia.
107
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona 08003, Spain.

Abstract

From around 2750 to 2500 bc, Bell Beaker pottery became widespread across western and central Europe, before it disappeared between 2200 and 1800 bc. The forces that propelled its expansion are a matter of long-standing debate, and there is support for both cultural diffusion and migration having a role in this process. Here we present genome-wide data from 400 Neolithic, Copper Age and Bronze Age Europeans, including 226 individuals associated with Beaker-complex artefacts. We detected limited genetic affinity between Beaker-complex-associated individuals from Iberia and central Europe, and thus exclude migration as an important mechanism of spread between these two regions. However, migration had a key role in the further dissemination of the Beaker complex. We document this phenomenon most clearly in Britain, where the spread of the Beaker complex introduced high levels of steppe-related ancestry and was associated with the replacement of approximately 90% of Britain's gene pool within a few hundred years, continuing the east-to-west expansion that had brought steppe-related ancestry into central and northern Europe over the previous centuries.

PMID:
29466337
PMCID:
PMC5973796
DOI:
10.1038/nature25738
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center