Send to

Choose Destination
Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Jan 16. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000789. [Epub ahead of print]

HIV Co-infection among Persons Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Diseases, San Francisco, 2007-2014.

Author information

San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, California, USA.



Early syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia but not HIV infections have increased in San Francisco, primarily among men.


We linked records of persons reported with early syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia to records of persons reported with HIV to measure the proportion and characteristics of San Francisco residents with HIV-STD co-infection between 2007 and 2014. We measured trends in HIV co-infection separately for men and women for each STD.


From 2007 through 2014, 5,745 early syphilis, 18,037 gonorrhea, and 37,224 chlamydia diagnoses were reported, 66%, 28%, and 15%, respectively, were among persons co-infected with HIV. Men accounted for the majority of persons with early syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia HIV co-infection. For early syphilis and HIV co-infection, among MSM, Latinos were more likely and Asian/Pacific Islanders were less likely to have HIV co-infection compared to Whites. Older age at diagnosis and prior history of a STD were both also significantly associated with early syphilis and HIV co-infection. Transgender persons, older ages, Latino MSM compared to White MSM and those with a prior history of STD were more likely to have HIV co-infection whereas Asian/Pacific Islander MSM were less likely to have HIV co-infection for both gonorrhea and chlamydia.


Our findings highlight the high burden of HIV-STD co-infection in San Francisco. To maintain the current declines in HIV incidence and turn the curve in rising STD incidence, there is an urgent need for collaborative HIV and STD prevention and control efforts.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer
Loading ...
Support Center