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Radiology. 2018 Jun;287(3):893-900. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2018171074. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

US Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy for Thyroid Malignancy: Diagnostic Performance of Seven Society Guidelines Applied to 2000 Thyroid Nodules.

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From the Departments of Radiology (E.J.H.) and Biostatistics (S.Y.K.), Ajou University School of Medicine, Wonchon-Dong, Yeongtong-Gu, Suwon 443-380, Korea; Department of Radiology, GangNeung Asan Hospital, Gangneung-si, Gangwon-do, Korea (D.G.N.); Department of Radiology, Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul, Korea (D.G.N.); Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea (J.H.B.); Department of Radiology, Thyroid Center, Daerim St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul, Korea (J.Y.S.); and Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea (J.H.K.).


Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography (US)-based fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) criteria from seven international societies in the detection of thyroid malignancy. Materials and Methods This study included a total of 2000 consecutive thyroid nodules (≥1 cm) in 1802 patients with final diagnoses from January 2010 to May 2011. US features of the thyroid nodules were retrospectively reviewed and were classified according to the categories defined by the seven international society guidelines. The diagnostic performance of US-based FNAB criteria in the detection of thyroid malignancy and unnecessary FNAB rates were calculated and compared by using a generalized estimating equation method. Results Of the 2000 thyroid nodules, 1546 (78.3%) were benign and 454 (22.7%) were malignant, with papillary carcinoma comprising 85.5% of all malignancies. The Korean Thyroid Association/Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KTA/KSThR) (94.5%), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) (92.5%), and American Thyroid Association (ATA) (89.6%) guidelines were more sensitive than those of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology/Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AACE/ACE/AME) (80.4%), American College of Radiology (ACR) (74.7%), French Society of Endocrinology (FSE) (72.7%), and Society of Radiology in Ultrasound (SRU) (70.9%) (P < .001), while the latter guidelines had higher specificity (P < .001). The rate of unnecessary FNAB was lowest with the ACR guidelines (25.3%), followed by the FSE (29.1%), AACE/ACE/AME (32.5%), SRU (45.2%), ATA (51.7%), NCCN (54.0%), and KTA/KSThR (56.9%) guidelines. Conclusion Because the diagnostic performance of US-based FNAB criteria varies according to the individual international society guidelines, clinicians should be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of US-based FNAB criteria in the management of thyroid nodules. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

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