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Immun Ageing. 2018 Feb 14;15:8. doi: 10.1186/s12979-017-0108-1. eCollection 2018.

Neuroinflammation and neurohormesis in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and Alzheimer-linked pathologies: modulation by nutritional mushrooms.

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1Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 97, 95123 Catania, Italy.
Spinal Unit, Emergency Hospital "Cannizzaro", Catania, Italy.
2Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
3Department of Medical and Surgery Sciences and Advanced Technology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
Environmental Health Sciences Division, School of Public Health, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA USA.
Contributed equally


Human life develops and expands not only in time and space, but also in the retrograde permanent recollection and interweaving of memories. Therefore, individual human identity depends fully on a proper access to the autobiographical memory. Such access is hindered or lost under pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, including recently associated oxidant pathologies, such as ocular neural degeneration occurring in glaucoma or neurosensorial degeneration occurring in Menière's disease. Oxidative stress and altered antioxidant systems have been suggested to play a role in the aetiology of major neurodegenerative disorders, and altered expression of genes sensing oxidative stress, as well as decreased cellular stress response mechanisms could synergistically contribute to the course of these oxidant disorders. Thus, the theory that low levels of stress can produce protective responses against the pathogenic processes is a frontier area of neurobiological research focal to understanding and developing therapeutic approaches to neurodegenerative disorders. Herein, we discuss cellular mechanisms underlying AD neuroinflammatory pathogenesis that are contributory to Alzheimer's disease. We describe endogenous cellular defence mechanism modulation and neurohormesis as a potentially innovative approach to therapeutics for AD and other neurodegenerative conditions that are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Particularly, we consider the emerging role of the inflammasome as an important component of the neuroprotective network, as well as the importance of Coriolus and Hericium nutritional mushrooms in redox stress responsive mechanisms and neuroprotection.


Mushrooms; Neurodegenerative disorders; Neurohormesis; Oxidative stress

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“Not applicable” in this section.Not applicable (the manuscript contains no individual person’s data).The authors declare that they have no competing interests.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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