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J Pediatr Urol. 2018 Apr;14(2):171.e1-171.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2017.11.014. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Postoperative pain and analgesia administration in children after urological outpatient procedures.

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Division of Urology, Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Division of Urology, Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:



There are limited data about pain patterns, analgesic requirements and factors predicting opioid requirements of children undergoing outpatient urologic surgery. This prospective study aimed to assess recovery profiles and pain medication requirements.


Patients between 6 months and 12 years of age were recruited prospectively between December 2013 and June 2014. Demographic and operative characteristics were collected. Following discharge home, the parents were asked to administer both acetaminophen and ibuprofen Q6H at a weight-adjusted dose, based on a schedule, until the end of postoperative day 2, and to administer the medication as required on postoperative day 3. Pain severity was recorded using validated pain scores (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability/Parents' Postoperative Pain Measurement). A morphine prescription was provided for breakthrough pain. A Likert scale was used to assess parent's satisfaction with the pain management.


A total of 249 patients were recruited, 111 patients (45%) returned appropriately completed surveys and were included in the final analysis. Mean age was 44.1 months (SD = 37.3). The performed procedures were orchidopexy (31), hypospadias repair (26), hernia/hydrocele repair (15), Fowler-Stephens procedure (13), meatoplasty (7), phalloplasty (4), scrotoplasty (1), circumcision (7), and diagnostic laparoscopy (5). After discharge home 17 patients (15.3%) received morphine. Mean utilization of non-opioid analgesia was 79% on postoperative day 1, 67% on day 2, 36% on day 3, and 2% on day 4. Parental satisfaction was high (92.0% satisfied/very satisfied). No patient, anaesthetic or surgical factors were associated with opioid use or prolonged need for postoperative analgesia.


The combination of scheduled non-opioid medications for maintenance and opioids for breakthrough pain provided satisfactory pain control after outpatient urologic surgery in children. There were no specific patient, anesthetic or surgical factors that predicted postoperative opioid requirements.


Analgesics; Children; Morphine; Outpatient; Postoperative pain; Urology

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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