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Sci Rep. 2018 Feb 16;8(1):3176. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-21621-5.

Anti-inflammatory effect of Tauroursodeoxycholic acid in RAW 264.7 macrophages, Bone marrow-derived macrophages, BV2 microglial cells, and spinal cord injury.

Author information

1
Department of Neurosurgery, CHA University, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.
2
Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.
3
Department of Neurosurgery, CHA University, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. hanib@cha.ac.kr.
4
Department of Neurosurgery, CHA University, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. sisohn@cha.ac.kr.

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. We induced an inflammatory process in RAW 264.7 macrophages, BV2 microglial cells, and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The anti-inflammatory effects of TUDCA on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, BV2 microglial cells, and BMMs were analyzed using nitric oxide (NO) assays, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The pathological changes in lesions of the spinal cord tissue were evaluated by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining, luxol fast blue/cresyl violet-staining and immunofluorescent staining. TUDCA decreased the LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediator, NO. It also suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, TUDCA decreased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). After SCI, TUDCA supported the recovery of the injury site and suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as iNOS, CD68 and CD86. In addition, TUDCA induced the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine, Arg-1. In conclusion, TUDCA inhibits inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages, BV2 microglial cells, and BMMs. TUDCA can be a potential alternative drug for SCI.

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