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Cardiovasc Res. 2018 Apr 1;114(5):645-655. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvy044.

Non-genomic effects of nuclear receptors: insights from the anucleate platelet.

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1
School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Harborne Building, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AS, Berkshire, UK.

Abstract

Nuclear receptors (NRs) have the ability to elicit two different kinds of responses, genomic and non-genomic. Although genomic responses control gene expression by influencing the rate of transcription, non-genomic effects occur rapidly and independently of transcriptional regulation. Due to their anucleate nature and mechanistically well-characterized and rapid responses, platelets provide a model system for the study of any non-genomic effects of the NRs. Several NRs have been found to be present in human platelets, and multiple NR agonists have been shown to elicit anti-platelet effects by a variety of mechanisms. The non-genomic functions of NRs vary, including the regulation of kinase and phosphatase activity, ion channel function, intracellular calcium levels, and production of second messengers. Recently, the characterization of mechanisms and identification of novel binding partners of NRs have further strengthened the prospects of developing their ligands into potential therapeutics that offer cardio-protective properties in addition to their other defined genomic effects.

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