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Parasite Immunol. 2018 Apr;40(4):e12520. doi: 10.1111/pim.12520. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract alters the cytokine profile of Leishmania major-infected macrophages: New insight into the underlying mechanism.

Author information

1
Razi Herbal Medicine Research Center, Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
2
Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran.
4
Razi Herbal Medicine Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
5
Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Abstract

This study aimed to identify the effects of olive leaf extract (OLE) on IFNγ, TNFα, TGFβ and nitric oxide (NO) resulted from macrophages infected with Leishmania major (L. major) amastigotes in the culture medium. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyse the level of Oleuropein in plant extract. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of OLE, the isolated BALB/c mice peritoneal macrophages were infected with L. major promastigotes and treated with 6.25, 12.5 and 25 μg/mL concentrations of OLE. To assess the cytokines, supernatants of cell cultures were harvested after 12, 24 and 48 hours. Cytokine production was evaluated by ELISA. Nitrite accumulation in the culture medium was assessed using the Griess reaction. The level of Oleuropein in the extract was 18.45% by HPLC. According to results, the production of IFNγ and TNFα was significantly increased when the infected and/or not infected macrophages with L. major promastigotes were affected by different concentrations of OLE. Conversely, the production of TGFβ was significantly decreased under the same conditions. Furthermore, the colorimetric determination of NO accumulation in the culture medium indicated that OLE has no effect on NO production. The study corroborates the immunomodulatory effects of OLE on L. major-infected macrophages.

KEYWORDS:

Leishmania major ; Olea europaea ; cytokine profile; macrophages

PMID:
29450889
DOI:
10.1111/pim.12520
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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